The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right or extreme-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton, Cumbria, and its current leader is Adam Walker. It currently has one councillor in UK local government. During its heyday in the 2000s, it had over fifty seats in local government, two seats on the London Assembly, and two Members of the European Parliament.
The BNP was formed in 1982 by John Tyndall and other former members of the National Front (NF). During its first two decades, the BNP placed little emphasis on contesting elections, in which it did poorly, but rather focused on street marches and rallies. A growing 'moderniser' faction was frustrated by Tyndall's leadership and in 1999 ousted him. The new leader Nick Griffin sought to broaden the BNP's electoral base by moderating some of its policies, targeting concerns about rising immigration rates, and emphasising localised community campaigns. This resulted in increased electoral growth throughout the 2000s, to the extent that it became the most electorally successful far-right party in British history. Concerns regarding financial mismanagement resulted in Griffin being ousted in 2014, by which point the BNP's membership and vote share had declined dramatically.
Ideologically characterised as extreme or far-right, the BNP under Tyndall was regarded as Neo-Nazi and fascist, with political scientists arguing that it remained fascist or neo-fascist under Griffin. The party is ethnic nationalist, and espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and the removal of settled non-white populations from the country. Initially, it called for the compulsory expulsion of non-whites, although has since advocated voluntary removals with financial incentives. It promotes biological racism, calling for global racial separatism and condemning mixed race relationships. Under Tyndall, the BNP emphasised anti-semitism and Holocaust denial, although Griffin switched the party's focus on to Islamophobia. It promotes economic protectionism, Euroscepticism, and a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism and LGBT rights.
The BNP has a highly centralised structure that gives its chairman near total control. It established a range of sub-groups—such as a youth wing, record label, and trade union—and built links with extreme-right parties across Europe. Regarded as the most successful far-right party in British history, the BNP attracted most support from within White British working-class communities in Northern and Eastern England, particularly among middle-aged and elderly men. More widely, it was highly unpopular and faced much opposition from anti-fascists, religious organisations, and mainstream politicians and media. BNP members were banned from a number of professions and polling suggested that a majority of Britons favoured the party's criminalisation.