The M23 rebellion was fighting that occurred between the March 23 Movement and the government in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) since the formal end of the Second Congo War in 2003.
In April 2012, former National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP) soldiers mutinied against the DRC government supported by the peacekeeping contingent of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). Mutineers formed a rebel group called the March 23 Movement (M23), also known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army, composed of former members of the rebel CNDP, allegedly sponsored by the government of the neighbouring state of Rwanda.
On 20 November 2012, M23 rebels took control of Goma, a provincial capital with a population of one million people. By the end of November that year, the conflict had forced more than 140,000 people to flee their homes, according to the U.N. refugee agency, on top of those already forced from their homes by previous rounds of fighting in the region. After repelling an ill-organized government counterattack and making some further gains, M23 agreed to withdraw from Goma on their own and left the city in early December.
On 24 February 2013, eleven African nations signed an agreement designed to bring peace to the region. In October, Congo told the UN that the movement was virtually finished after being pushed back to a small area near Rwanda. On 7 November 2013, following significant defeats to a UN-backed government offensive, M23 surrendered.