Editor's note: Sir John Chilcot is in the process of delivering his report into the Iraq war. He has concluded that the war was not the last resort and started the report by referencing those killed in the Iraq war, also mentioning the deaths in the Dhaka cafe attack last weekend. He has says the intelligence provided to justify invasion was presented with "certainty that was not justified," that the UK failed to achieve their objectives in Iraq with "consequences to this day." - Grace
More: Bangladesh home minister says all Dhaka restaurant attackers were well-educated and most came from wealthy families; Asked why they would have become Islamist militants, minister says: 'It has become a fashion' - AFP
Dhaka (Bengali: ঢাকা, pronounced: [ɖʱaka]; English /dɑːkɑː/DAH-kah, /dɑːkə/DAH-kuh, or /dækə/DACK-uh) is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is one of the world's most populated cities, with a population of 17 million people in the Greater Dhaka Area. Located in an eponymous district and division, it lies along the east bank of the Buriganga River in the heart of the Bengal delta. The city is a microcosm of the entire country, with diverse religious and ethnic communities. Its name was romanised as Dacca until the current spelling was adopted in 1983. It is the largest city in the Bengal region. It is also a major city of South Asia and among the OIC states.
The old city of Dhaka was the Mughal capital of Bengal. The city's name was Jahangir Nagar (City of Jahangir) in the 17th century. It was a cosmopolitan commercial centre and the hub of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. The city hosted two important caravansaries of the subcontinent: the Bara Katra and Choto Katra, located on the riverfront of the Buriganga. The Mughals decorated the city with well-laid out gardens, tombs, mosques, palaces and forts. Dhaka became known as the City of Mosques in Bengal. It was also described as the Venice of the East. The old city was home to various Eurasian merchant groups. At the height of its medieval glory, Dhaka was regarded as one of the wealthiest and most prosperous cities in the world. It was central to the economy of Mughal Bengal, which generated 50% of Mughal GDP.
Modern Dhaka developed from the late 19th century under the British Raj. Between 1905 and 1912, it was the capital of British Eastern Bengal and Assam. In 1947, after the Partition of British India, it became the administrative capital of the eastern wing of Pakistan. It was declared as the legislative capital of Pakistan in 1962. In 1971, it became the capital of an independent Bangladesh. Architect Louis Kahn's acclaimed modernist National Capital Complex, based on the geography and heritage of Bengal, was inaugurated in Dhaka in 1982 as one of the largest legislative complexes in the world. The city has endured periods of martial law, war and natural calamities. It continues to confront challenges faced by growing metropolises in developing countries, including poverty, pollution and congestion.
Dhaka is an important financial centre in the region. The Dhaka Stock Exchange is one of the largest in South Asia in terms of trading volume and market capitalisation. The city is home to a number of regional and international development organisations, including the permanent secretariat of BIMSTEC. It hosts several major arts festivals, including the annual Ekushey Book Fair, the Dhaka Literature Festival and the biannual Dhaka Art Summit. The city has the largest number of cycle rickshaws and is known as the Rickshaw Capital of the World. Dhaka's highly popular cuisine features distinctive biryanis, kebabs and bakarkhanis as a legacy of its rule by the Mughals and the Nawabs of Dhaka.