Henderson County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 78,532. The county seat is Athens. The county is named in honor of James Pinckney Henderson, the first Attorney General of the Republic of Texas, and Secretary of State for the republic. He later served as the first Governor of Texas.
Henderson County was established in 1846, the year after Texas statehood. Its first town was Buffalo, laid out in 1847. The county boundaries were set in 1850, with some reduction from the previous size. The restructuring resulted in the need for a new county seat. In an election, Athens was chosen as the site for the "courthouse under the oaks."
Henderson County comprises the Athens, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area.