In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS, IS, or Daesh, calling itself the Islamic State) militants during the first half of 2014, and the group's internationally condemned brutality, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil War, many states began to intervene against ISIL in Syria and Iraq. Later, there were also minor interventions by some states against ISIL-affiliated groups in Nigeria and Libya.
In mid-June 2014, Iran, according to American and British information, started flying drones over Iraq, and, according to Reuters, Iranian soldiers were in Iraq fighting ISIL. Simultaneously, the United States ordered a small number of troops to Iraq and started flying manned aircraft over Iraq.
In July 2014, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Iran sent Sukhoi Su-25 aircraft to Iraq, and Hezbollah purportedly sent trainers and advisers to Iraq to monitor ISIL's movements. In August 2014, the US and Iran separately began a campaign of airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq. Since then, fourteen countries in a US-led coalition have also executed airstrikes on ISIL in Iraq and in Syria.
Since the airstrikes have started, ISIL has been losing ground in both Iraq and Syria. The US has taken out hundreds of ISIL fighters and their top leadership. The US has also targeted their oilfields and funding in what they have named Operation Tidal Wave II.
In September 2015, Russian forces, at the request of the Syrian government, began hundreds of bombing raids against Syrian rebel groups, including ISIL (and the FSA).
Even though Russia has claimed that hundreds of cities, towns and villages in Syria were liberated from ISIS control since their intervention, there have also been multiple accounts of civilian deaths from Russian airstrikes.
In mid-2016, US-led coalition and Russian-led planning coordinated.