Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"; English /ˌpɔːrtəˈriːkoʊ/ or /ˌpwɛərtəˈriːkoʊ/; Spanish: [ˈpweɾto ˈriko], locally also [ˈpwelto ˈχiko; ˈʀ̥iko]), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and formerly known as and sometimes called Porto Rico, is the largest insular territory of the United States, and it is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea. It is an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory no longer observes daylight saving time, and its official languages are Spanish, which is predominant, and English. The island's population is approximately 3.4 million. Puerto Rico's rich history, tropical climate, diverse natural scenery, renowned traditional cuisine, and attractive tax incentives make it a popular destination for travelers from around the world.
Originally populated by the aboriginal Taíno people, the island was claimed in 1493 by Christopher Columbus for the Kingdom of Spain, and it later endured several invasion attempts by the French, Dutch, and British. During the four centuries of Spanish rule, the island's ethnic, cultural and physical landscapes were transformed, as the island was settled overwhelmingly by Spanish settlers, primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia, continuing right up until the end of the 19th century, as a result of which it is an overwhelmingly Catholic and markedly Hispanic territory in terms of culture and language. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States annexed the island under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.
Puerto Ricans are natural-born citizens of the United States. Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. As a U.S. territory, American citizens residing on the island are disenfranchised at the national level and may not vote for president and vice president of the United States. However, Congress approved a local constitution, allowing U.S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor.
A 2012 referendum showed a majority (54% of the electorate) disagreed with "the present form of territorial status", with full statehood as the preferred option among those who voted for a change of status. Following the vote, the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico enacted a concurrent resolution to request the president and Congress of the United States to end its current status as an unincorporated U.S. territory and begin the process of admission to the union as a state.