Rome is a city in New York State. It is located in Oneida County, which is in north-central or "Upstate" New York. The population was 33,725 at the 2010 census. Rome is one of two principal cities in the Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, which lies in the "Leatherstocking Country" made famous by James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, set in frontier days after the American Revolutionary War. Rome is in New York's 22nd congressional district.
The city developed at an ancient portage site of Native Americans, including the historic Iroquois. It continued to be strategically important to Europeans who also used the main 18th and 19th-century waterways, based on the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, that connected New York City and the Atlantic seaboard to the Great Lakes. The original European settlements developed around fortifications erected in the 1750s to defend the waterway, in particular the British Fort Stanwix (1763).
Following the war, the city began to develop with the construction of the Rome Canal in 1796, to connect Wood Creek (leading from Lake Ontario) and the Mohawk River. In the same year the Town of Rome was formally created as a section of Oneida County. For a time, the small community next to the canal was informally known as Lynchville, after the original owner of the property. The Town of Rome was converted into a city by the New York State Legislature on February 23, 1870. The residents have called Rome the City of American History.