Vermont (/vərˈmɒnt/ or /vɜːrˈmɒnt/, locally: [vɚˈmɑ̟̃(ʔ)]) is a New England state in the northeastern United States. Forests cover approximately 75% of its total land area. Vermont is the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. The state is the 6th smallest in area and the 2nd least populous of the 50 United States. It is the least populous of the six New England states and the only one not bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York. The Green Mountains run north-south from the Canadian border with the province of Quebec in the north to the Massachusetts line to the south. The Connecticut River forms Vermont's eastern boundary with New Hampshire. With a population of 7,671, the state capital of Montpelier is the least populous state capital in the US. Vermont's most populous city is Burlington. With a 2013 population of 42,284, Burlington is the least populous city in the United States to be the largest city within a state. Burlington's metropolitan area has a population of 214,796. Vermont is one of the most racially homogeneous states; 94.3% of its population identified as non-Hispanic white in 2010.
Originally inhabited by two major Native American tribes (the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and the Iroquois), much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France during its early colonial period. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the US). For many years, the nearby colonies, especially the Provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants). Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for fourteen years. Aside from the Thirteen Colonies, Vermont is one of only four U.S. states that was previously a sovereign state (along with California, Hawaii, and Texas). In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the 14th state, the first in addition to the original 13 colonies. Vermont was the first state to partially abolish slavery while still independent and played an important geographical role in the Underground Railroad, which helped American slaves escape to Canada.